In 1989 the chemistry professors Stanley Pons and Martin Fleishman reported they had achieved cold fusion in a palladium anode emerged in a solution of sodium deuteroxide in heavy water D2O. Due to a bad exactness of their report, only few other scientists were able to replicate their findings in the first location. The findings were subsequently dismissed as due to misunderstandings and bad scientific practice, and the subject of cold fusion has since been considered as a taboo area.
However, some scientists did manage to replicate the findings, and quietly an enormous amount of positive research findings based on experiments of a better quality have been printed. The phenomenon is again becoming accepted as a legitimate field of study by steadily scientists.
However, what is really going on isn’t well understood. Heat production, found radiation and detected fusion products suggest that some sort of nuclear reaction or fusion occurs, but the reactions don’t show the amount of radiation and the ratios of products that known hot fusion reactions do. Therefore other names of this phenomenon are often used, such as Low Energy Nuclear Reactions or (LENR) or Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR).
WHAT IS FUSION
The new nucleus is held together by the strong forces between the heavy particles, protons and neutrons. These forces are so powerful that they triumph over the repulsing electromagnetic forces between protons.
However, the powerful forces only work at a short distance. Therefore the nucleons (neutrons and protons) must be brought very close together. This is difficult because of the repulsing electromagnetic forces between the protons. In conventional fusion this is achieved by very high temperature and pressure in the fusing material.
The mass of a helium nucleus (consisting of two protons and two neutrons) and other light nuclei are less than the bulk of the identical amount of free protons, neutrons or deuterium nuclei. A deuterium nucleus consists of on proton and one neutron. Heavy water comprises deuterium rather than ordinary hydrogen and is therefore designed D2O. When fusion occurs, this mass difference cannot be lost. It’s converted into kinetic energy and gamma radiation. Therefore fusion of protons, neutrons or kernels of the very lightest elements into heavier elements is a really potent energy source.
One hasn’t been able to generate a controlled fusion by high temperature and pressure that yields more energy than the input energy yet. The only practical way you’ve managed to exploit the energy from warm mix is that the hydrogen bomb.
THE PROCESS BEHIND COLD FUSION
There isn’t any fully developed model for cold fusion yet. The theory behind the phenomenon is nevertheless very simple: All particles behave according to quantum mechanical laws. These laws state that the coordinates and energy state of a particle at one point in time determine the probability of finding a particle a place with some given coordinates at another point of time, but the exact place cannot be predicted. Actually, a particle can be found anywhere at that other time point, put all places don’t have the exact same probability. Some places are very likely, and others are very improbable. As a result of this, even a particle that’s not in any internet motion nevertheless will shift place randomly to some extend, usually very little, but occasionally more.
By bringing particles and nuclei very near each other by using some force, this will happen: The quantum mechanical behaviour will as always make the particles shift their position more or less all the time, and sometimes they get near enough to let the strong nuclear forces to take actions and cause them to fuse.
According to standard comprehension of the conventional theory, this cannot happen in such a degree to be detected. Still it does. Either the standard theory is not complete, or one has not learned to use the concept in a ideal fashion. The mathematical apparatus of the theory is so complex, it is impossible to predict what can happen and what can’t happen with a short glance at the equations.
Cold fusion differs in several aspects from warm fusion. It is difficult to produce warm fusion of other things than 1 deuterium and one tritium kernel. By cold fusion, two deuterium kernels easily fuse to helium, and even fusion involving hydrogen kernels (free protons) have been reported.
Output of neutrons (n), tritium (T), protons (p) and gamma radiation was reported by cold fusion, but not in the amount predicted by standard comprehension.
THE ORIGINAL PONS-FLEISCHMAN SYSTEM
The first experiment exerted by Pons and Fleischmann consisted of those components: A palladium cathode, a nickel anode and a solution of sodium deuteride NaOD (20 percent ) in heavy water D2O.
When electricity was applied to the electrolytic system, deuterium atoms were produced at the cathode, and oxygen at the anode. The deuterium atoms went to the palladium crystal lattice in great extend prior to mixing to D2.
Excess heat was then produced in the electrolytic cell, aside from the electrolytic heat. Helium, tritium and neutrons were produced, but the latter two goods not in the quantities that would have been produced in a hot fusion. Thus the fusion reactions in the system are different form those in hot fusion, and likely more complicated.
Only few scientists were able to replicate the results in the first place, because of awful documentation from the originators. However, a number of them succeeded, and slowly the conditions for a decent fusion have been established. The ideal fusion occurs when the palladium is somewhat over-saturated, that is when there are nearly as many atoms of deuterium as those of palladium from the crystal.
The saturation is controlled by the voltage applied, and by using palladium structures composed of very thin layers or very little grains. The electrolysis in itself is only a way to put deuterium to the palladium crystal matrix.
As seen, cold fusion processes can be initiated by packing many deuterium kernels into inter-atomic rooms in a crystal lattice. A critical density for starting a fusion process appears to be the same density as in liquid pure deuterium. Since there is no fusion process in liquid deuterium, the crystal lattice likely packs the deuterium kernels together in tight sub-microscopic groups with much greater density than the average density in the lattice as a whole, and thus allowing quantum mechanical tunnelling between the kernels from the groups.
There are other electrolytic solutions than that utilized by Fleischman and Pons that can be utilised in combination with palladium electrodes to acquire cold fusion. By electrolysing a solution of KCL/LiCL/Lid using a palladium anode, signs pointing at cold fusion have been reported, but many attempts of repeating the results have failed.
Any force that is able to push enough D+ ions to the right types of metal crystal lattice, can be used to deliver cold fusion. For example can signs of fusion be produced by bombarding the right kind of metallic lattice with hastened D- ions.
By an electric discharge between palladium electrodes at a deuterium gas, signs of fusion have been seen. By such a release, plasma composed of D+ ions and electrons will be formed between the electrodes. The D+ ions will be attracted to the surface of the negative electrode, and a high density of Dwill happen at this surface. Since also these D-ions will have a high thermic energy; many of them will be thrown very near each other. Quantum-mechanical tunnelling can then do the rest of the approaching procedure, so that fusion can take place.
Also large pressure can be used to push enough deuterium into a metallic lattice to give fusion. For instance, by having finely divided palladium sausage at a pressurized deuterium gas, signs of fusion have been generated, and replicated by other scientists.
Also by reactions where nickel metal and H2 unite, indications of fusion have been discovered. Even though H2 and not D2 was used, the reaction has still been reported to happen. This points to a very different reaction mechanism than that of warm fusion. Some scientists speculate that hydrogen atoms can exist in quantum states where the electron and proton are so near each other which the atom responds like a neutron.
MICROSCOPIC WARM FUSION IN OSCILLATING SONOLUMINATING GAS BUBBLES
By bombarding gas bubbles in a liquid by ultrasonic waves, the bubbles can be brought into an extreme oscillation of expansions and collapses synchronized with the sound frequency.
Such oscillating bobbles can send out light by certain frequencies of expansions and collapses, and from the ideal compositions of the gas. By each collapse, the place temperature in the bobble can reach up to 10 mill degrees, though the average temperature in the complete blending is near room temperature.
When deuterium is present in the oscillating bobbles, fusion was observed. This fusion is strictly not cold fusion, but looks like hot fusion, and also the procedure sends out neutrons, gamma-rays and tritium atoms as predicted by standard understanding.
The process hasn’t been reported to produce more energy that that put in, but is supported by independent investigators.
Cold fusion in crystal lattices has been proven to generate more energy than that put in. Experimental 1 MW or more experimental reactors was set up and demonstrated.
Commercial reactors are by now being developed, but no one has yet been able to demonstrate a reactor with stabile enough operation to be sold in the marketplace. Commercial household heaters appear to be the first type of reactors these companies attempt to develop. The hope of these companies is that these will make a means for greater reactors and uses in the market.
By now it is not easy to see how successful cold fusion will be in the energy marketplace. Cold fusion may make a revolution that provides the world cheap clean energy in enormous amounts, but nobody knows yet.
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