The Atlantic Puffin

Atlantic Puffin, Puffin, Atlantic

The Atlantic Puffin is the sole puffin that’s found in the Atlantic ocean. The other two puffin species, the Tufted Puffin and the Horned Puffin, are found in the North Pacific Ocean. Puffins are amazing because they both fly and dive to great depths.

It belongs to the Order Charadriiformes, the Family Alcidae, the Genus Fratercula, and the Species arctica. Its scientific name is Fratercula arctica, and it was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1758. Other names that have been given to the Atlantic Puffin are Common Puffin, Puffin, Puffin Auk, Labrador Auk, Sea Parrot, Pope, Bottle-Nose, Tammy Norie, Coulterner, Tinker, Clown of the Ocean, and Sea Rooster. The Canadian province Newfoundland and Labrador has declared it the provincial bird (like how in the United States there are state birds).

In the summer, during breeding season, the puffin’s bill develops much more ridges and rectal growth plates. Its crown is greyish-black. Its upper parts are dark. It has a narrow ashy collar. The sides of the head, the chin, and the throat are also ashy. The area between the eyes and the bill are almost white, with a dark dusky patch on the side of its own throat. The underparts, starting in the neck, are pur white. The puffin stands upright on its legs, which are pushed very far back on it body. It stands and waddles like a penguin does. The base of the bill and the first slabs are dull yellow. The following space on the bill is grayish blue. The rest of the bill is vermilion, and yellow below. The iris is bluish white, and there are conical shaped projections above and behind the eye.

Turkey Vultures

Bird, Vulture, Turkey Vulture, Animal

When I was a young girl, many, many years back, my Mom and I often picked wild strawberries as a special summertime treat for this night’s dessert. On one occasion, as I bent down to loosen a cluster of sweet little red berries from their stemsout of the corner of my eye something grabbed my attention. I looked beyond our neighbor’s house, and into the skies above’Sugar Hill’, where I had enjoyed watching a lot of awesomely beautiful sunsets. A large dark bird with an impressive wingspan was moving silently and slowly, circling in the skies over the mountain.

“What IS that, Mother?”

The facts about turkey vultures:

Gentle, caring and devoted parents

Do not spread any diseases whatsoever, contrary to popular beliefs

Essential part of Nature’s cleanup crew

Purify environment by eliminating animal cadavers that are already infected

Considered sacred in certain cultures for their gift of sanitizing

Enjoy soaring on high using hot thermals to lift them ever upward

Resemble wild turkeys with their red featherless head, dark body and two-tone wings

Lazy, dirty, aggressive, morbid harbingers of death? While those are understandable responses, I fear they are based on pictures conjured up by Hollywood Westerns.

The black vultures most often seen from the west and south throughout Mexico are really competitive.

However, the Turkey Vultures are quite another story. Common all over america, it is the turkey vulture that uses its highly developed capacity to detect the stench of cadavers, even at great distances. These large eagle-sized birds sport distinctive two-toned wings that are dark brown, with silvery gray feathers on their wing borders.

Turkey vulture heads are small and featherless for a very good reason. Think about it–similar to workmen dress for the job, these birds do exactly the opposite. They undress (their heads) to the task at hand. It is not pretty, but it is true. Vultures would be spending far too much of their time preening and cleaning rather than filling their bellies. The smaller head size allows them to get into all the nooks and crannies where the meat is. In the bird world, efficacy most often translates to survival.

When the young hatch from their excellently camouflaged eggs, they are helpless to defend or feed themselves. Their parents are ever watchful for possible predatory attacks, and they’re adept at providing plenty of food for their downy chicks for another 60 to 80 days.

In some cultures they’re revered as purifiers and cleansers. Buddhists believe they have the capability to release the soul and take it to Heaven. So it is a routine practice to offer their deceased to vultures for’cleansing’ and delivery into the firmament, also known as’sky burials’.

Their scientific name, Cathartes aura, really translates to ‘purifying breeze’ or’golden purifier’. Either of those interpretations is more accurate than the word’vulture’, which means to tear.

They’ll take turns, rather than fight over bits and pieces of flesh. Other birds, like the black vultures and hawks, find it easy to push them away out of their own finds.

Possessing excellent immune systems keeps them from contracting any nasty diseases from the dead creatures they ingest.

If they feel afraid or threatened they regurgitate (frequently at the direction of the perceived threat). This offensive act repels, and takes their attacker by surprise, with the sight and awful odor. Plus, it serves to lighten the load for a faster get away!

The unfounded fears that turkey vultures spread disease often prompts intentional shootings and cruel poisonings and trappings. However, these birds keep the environment clean and disease free, rather than the reverse.

As humans, I think we sometimes tend to equate beauty with goodness, and ugliness with evil. All living things have a role on this Earth. The much maligned Turkey Vulture serves a noble goal. We will need to look past the superficial idea of attractiveness, and give the Turkey Vulture the reverence it has rightfully earned and deserves.

Frog Facts

Frog, Macro, Amphibian, Green, Tree-Frog

You might have heard the term amphibians, which signify cold-blooded vertebrate animals that are comfortable living in both land and water. Would you name a few animals that belong to this class of creature? When you’ve missed out on the most frequent name in this list, it’s the frog. Kids are knowledgeable about green frogs which are mostly seen in cartoons or fairy tales. However, frogs can be found in different colors and shapes. There are plenty of species of frogs throughout the world, some of which are poisonous. Here are a couple interesting things children ought to learn about frogs.

Being amphibian, frogs lay their legs in water. They are tailless, and their physical structure is not very large. Frogs like to spend time in fresh water, an arid surface or trees. Frogs can jump often in a single jump; state up to 20 times in a row. One of the biggest frogs is called the Goliath that’s located in West Africa.

Frogs use their tongue to catch the prey and swallow them whole. In the time of swallowing frogs blinks, their eyes frequently facing their eyeballs down to their mouth. It helps them to pass the food through to their throat.

One of the interesting species of frogs is that the glass frog. As the name implies, the body of such frogs is entirely transparent. It is simple to see its internal organs and bones. Such frogs are good research material for scientists who are eager to understand how the inside of a living animal works. Learning about frogs is always a trend among kids. Frogs are one of the animals to serve this objective. Students in higher research often found doing their experiments with the body, bones and organs of frogs interesting although it doesn’t always seem exciting for all students. They find it quite tough to catch and slash a living creature. These days, many colleges are providing 3D versions and replicas of amphibians to practice the same.

It seems intriguing to have a frog as a pet, and one such species for that purpose is the bullfrog. People want to pet such frogs and allow them free when they do not feel like keeping them . For food, they could compete hard with their native species and environment, which is a detrimental sign to the environment. The Bullfrog breed is very fast, and their availability in the wrong area can upset the natural balance. They deprive food and resources of other animals leaving in the same selection.

Some frogs are extremely lethal; one such frog is called the Golden Frog. Only one gram of toxin they can kill around 100,000 individuals. While getting to know about the poisonous frogs, kids will need to understand that some species are so poisonous that even touching them is unsafe. Great thing about such a frog is thatthey are found mostly in jungles. A few of the tribes residing in the dense forest are capable of collecting and utilizing the toxins of these frogs.

Frogs like to begin their lives with swimming and then they gradually get into the water. Once they start growing, frogs start living inland regions. Frogs inhale through their nostrils, and they can see all around them such as upwards, sideways and facing them all at exactly the exact same time. Right from the age of three, a number of the commonly observed frogs are ready to breed. Frogs cannot survive in the ocean and salt water.

Feeding wild raccoons

Raccoon, Wild Animal, Nature, Outdoor

Raccoons are smart, very cute, and fun to watch in character. These are some of the principal reasons why people would love to feed them. But feeding raccoons can lead to a whole heap of issues. Even though it’s not illegal to feed wild raccoons, it’s a practice that’s widely discouraged in the wildlife rescue and control market. Keep on reading to find out why feeding raccoons is a dangerous and dangerous threat to take for yourself and your property.

The most important reason why we should not feed raccoons is to keep them from trespassing on our possessions. Furthermore, the reason we do not want raccoons on our possessions is because raccoons cause difficulties. In the event you should feed raccoons, they will start to associate your property for a source of food. Since raccoons are smart, they’ll return night after night, searching for more food.

Dangers and Risks

When raccoons start to explore our lands on a regular basis, they become comfortable and familiar with its environment. They might even think about your property their own land. At these times, raccoons are more confident and likely to be a threat to any pets or human contact. Raccoons can carry infectious diseases, germs, and bacteria that they can transmit through blood, saliva, snacks, and even scratches. If a pet or person gets too close, or they also near them, a raccoon may feel threatened. And when raccoons feel threatened, they can become aggressive and attack, scratch, claw, or snack.

Another significant reason why we do not want raccoons visiting our yards is because they cause a enormous quantity of structural and landscaping damages. From that point, the damages can only get worse. By way of instance, attic insulation is torn down from the walls for nesting, or soiled with raccoon droppings, ceiling tiles discolor from raccoon urine, foul odors seep in the living spaces, roof shingles have been ripped off, siding is ripped away, baseboards are pried from the walls, and a whole lot more.

Feeding raccoons is similar to sending them an invitation to create your house their property. Damages from raccoons are pricey, and can occasionally call for whole room renovations or huge repairs. Protect yourself, your family, your pets, and your property with accountable wildlife control. This means not feeding wild raccoons and calling a local raccoon control firm if you spot any on or around your premises.

Hamburger

Burger, Bacon, Snack, Fast Food, Bun

The Hamburg steak because it was called in the 1800’s was served to the voyages from Germany to the USA. The meat patties were cooked and served on two pieces of bread. To attract lots of the sailors and European people to their eating stands vendors. They would offer the Hamburg style steak on the menu.
With Hamburg steak firmly embedded the American culture in the late 1800’s claims of how it served in today’s standard is based on Congress girl Rosa DeLaurao. This is a disputed fact. We’ll provide you a few more names and areas of the Hamburger in america.
Fletcher Davis of Athers Texas sold burgers from the cafe in the late 1800’s before taking them to the World’s Fair in 1904.
Frank and Charles Menches vendor at a county fair ran from their sausage sandwiches and began using beef instead. It was recorded this took place in 1892 at the Summit County Fair in Akron Ohio.
In 1885 Charles Nagreen now called hamburger Charlie who made sandwiches which were easy to eat while walking at the Seymour Fair he was only 15 years old at the time. In 1995 Governor Frank Keating proclaimed that the first true hamburger on a bun was made and consumed in Tulsa Oklahoma.
With 40 billion served up in the United States alone has truly become America’s favorite sandwich. It might not have ever happened because in 1906 Upton Sinclair’s Journalistic novel”The Jungle” detailed the unsavory areas of the meat packing industry in the usa. Ground beef became subject to much scrutiny since it was easy to add meat scraps, additives and fillers
In 1921 Billy Ingram and Walter Anderson of Kansas had the vision to open White Castle restaurant. It became the lead way for today’s fast food hamburger success. The White Castle restaurants gleamed with cleanliness bringing the hamburger reputation along with it.
The combinations that have come with the hamburger are endless with ideas being generated without end. Lots of you have your own favorite recipe to the beans of your choice.
Next time you pull into your favorite fast food restaurant, fire up the grill or place one on the George Forman grill you will know a little of this development on the Hamburger.

What Can Someone Do If They Keep Ending Up With The Wrong Person?

Holding Hands, Couple
If someone had just purchased a car, there’s a strong probability that they’d have taken it for a test drive . This could have given them the chance to learn what it’s like and to see whether it would be a great match for them.
In addition to this, they would have probably asked a range of questions about the vehicle. After all, this was a big decision, so it’s a fantastic thing they had completed their research and not only gone for any vehicle.
A Different Approach
However, while someone may be careful when it comes to what car they purchase, this may not be the case in regards to who they begin a relationship with.
If they behaved this way in regards to purchasing a vehicle, they could wind up buying a car that’s dangerous or only looks great from the outside. In any event, they are going to have ended up making a poor decision.
The Main Thing
The Hallo Effect
If they were to say what’s occurring inside them it may sound like that,’they seem great, so every other part of these must also be great’.
One is not going to be taking a medication that interferes with their ability to think logically, but it is going to be as if they are. An individual will have set another person on a base, which is very likely to mean that they’ll have a long way to fall.
Two Extremes
As times goes by, it might become clear that the thought they had of another individual earlier on had very little basis in fact.
If something like this happened once it would be sufficient, but when this occurs on a regular basis, it’s likely to cause a person to experience lots of pain. It wouldn’t be true, however, to state that this is always what happens when someone always ends up with the wrong person.
Another Scenario
Conversely, an individual could realize they have the inclination to be attracted to people who come across as strong and competent. In the beginning they’ll feel like they are with someone who will treat them nicely, only to discover that this individual ends up becoming really commanding.
When this occurs, another person will have seemed to have possessed all of the perfect traits initially, yet ended up getting somebody else as time went by. Due to the number of people they’ve been with who have been like this, they might wonder if they have a sign in their head that says,’controlling people only’.
The Common Denominator
What this means is that in order them for entice soemome who’s different, they will have to change.
The area which will most likely have to be changed is their internal world; altering their appearance in some way, for example, is not likely to be the solution. In precisely the exact same way that changing a cars look is improbable make it operate better, changing their look is not likely resolve what’s occurring, either.
1 Option
Therefore, when one meets someone who they believe is a fantastic match, they could ask one of the buddies to come and spend some time together on various occasions.
The trouble with this strategy is that their other person can put on an act in the start, and, ones buddy may not be a great judge of character. On the other hand, if a person begins to resolve the wounds which are within them, it’ll be easier for them to see others for who they are instead of projecting so much onto them.
Diving In
Along with this, they will slowly lose the attraction they have to people that are not great for them. Lots of the wounds they need to deal with may be the result of what took place whilst they were a kid.
Dealing with this baggage will not occur immediately, but it is going to happen as long as they’re patient and persistent.
Awareness
If one wishes to change this area of their life, they might want to reach out for outside support. This is something which may be provided by the aid of a therapist or healer, as an example.

Ghana Life

Street, Africa, Ghana, City, Streets

After vowing he wouldn’t turn to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Ghanaian dictator, Jerry John Rawlings, was forced eventually in 1983 to inflict this hardship on his people. Apart from inducing the collapse of large sectors of Ghana’s businesses and throwing thousands of people out of work, the new policies imposed on the government produced a marketplace supplying the public with almost no choice. People were compelled to buy whatever it satisfied the traders to import. Long cherished products disappeared to be replaced by cheap copies of dubious quality.

Tom, an English engineer seeing Tamale in northern Ghana in 1987, was advised that the northerners greatly valued the British products which they had come to know and trust in colonial times. The Lister diesel engine has been much used for corn milling, water pumping and generating electricity and there were many old installations scattered throughout the Northern and Upper Regions. Likewise the northerners adored the Raleigh bicycle and the original Land Rover four-wheel-drive vehicle. They called these goods’original’ and always asked for them. But these days they could not be purchased new because almost all present imports were from China and India. These countries produced copies of the Lister engine as well as the Raleigh bicycles but the northerners had soon came to detect the difference in quality. That was how the demand for the’first’ began.

Tom said he feared that if the British goods were imported these times the rural folks would not have the ability to afford them, and in any case, the grade was not as good as before. On the other hand, the quality of the Asian products could be expected to improve. He was told in reply that the regional people would attempt to pay more for better quality. The Cotton Development Company had recently imported bicycles to market to their employees on easy-payment terms. Most of the bicycles were from China but a few Raleighs were included. Although the cost was higher, it was the Raleighs that were spoken for first.

Tom’s Ghanaian interlocutor said he was puzzled by what had occurred. He thought that the free market recommended by the IMF was supposed to be controlled by the law of supply and demand. However, this market didn’t supply what the people demanded, it provided what it suited the traders to import. The people could just buy what was locally available. It was not a free market, it was a slaves’ market.

Perks of Firearm Training

Accuracy International, As50

Are you interested in guns and now seeking firearms training from certified professionals? Or perhaps just plain interested in firearms and would want to know how to shoot? Getting training professionally by firearms teachers would certainly come with benefits. Here are some of them:

1.

This is probably the first and foremost advantage of learning anything about guns. Knowing how to shoot and operate firearms is important but without the knowledge of appropriate safety habits and skills, unfortunate incidents regarding firearms will continue to happen. Nobody wants that so it’s essential that everyone who’s involved and would want to be involved with firearms be equipped with the proper knowledge about firearms safety. It decreases the likelihood of accidents, which may occasionally be fatal and can even cost lives.

  1. Awareness of how and when to employ force

In simpler and shorter terms, this is often referred to as’Use of Force’. If you own a firearm and know how to shoot, do you understand just when and where you fire? Do you know the legal implications of what can happen when the bullet fires off the barrel? Those are some questions that you can get an answer from and learn in a firearms training institution or by a certified firearms instructor. Although it might be true you understand how to shoot but comprehension of just how much force you use and the knowledge of applying it appropriately is one of the best things which you can learn from firearms training.

  1. Measuring the accuracy of your goal

You definitely don’t point your gun in what you don’t intend to shoot but there would probably come a time in your life, let’s say an intrusion in your private property like your residence or business or perhaps a threat to you or your loved ones’ lives appears, that it is a requirement that you have to pull and take. It would be catastrophic if you cannot work on the aim once the need shall arise. It is possible to effectively deal with an opponent if you understand how to aim and shoot and such a skill requires training, essentially from guns professionals or experienced firearms instructors.

  1. Developing yourself and honing your firearms skills

Lastly, visiting a firearms training institution will greatly develop you as an individual. During training, you will learn self-discipline, working on your own aim, in addition to physical conditioning on the way to better take and have the mindset for it. You’ll also learn when to pull the gun out on appropriate situations with all the legal things in mind. Also, let us not put aside that people who have developed a passion for firearms can learn firearms better by getting the education that’s vital for every firearms owner and enthusiast. You can greatly develop your skills and passion for firearms by acquiring quality firearms instruction.

Picking a School

Knowledge, Book, Library, Glasses

There comes a point when every parent goes through the process to discover a school for their child. It can be a difficult process – you might have a different opinion on choice of schools in relation to your kid; you may be moving to a different area; or you might be taking a look at an independent, fee paying school for your child. Whatever the situation, help is on hand to ensure you find the ideal school where your child is happy.

So we’ve put together some general ideas that will help you not just find a school, but to find the appropriate school.

Moving area – locating a school in an area you’re unfamiliar with can be quite tricky, especially given the amount of assistance given by existing primary schools to get their pupils into the right secondary school. The best place to begin is by creating a listing of schools in the area you are going to, you can do a postcode search here. As soon as you have your list, contact them and see when they’re available for you to go and see. The entire process can then be broken down into an easy, enjoyable exercise for you and your little one.

Find an independent school – if you are searching for an independent school for your kid then your options will become much narrower. Beyond major towns and cities there are often only a small number of independent, fee paying schools to pick from and you might already know what these are. Independent schools will always have open days or open evenings where you can call in and take a look around to see if it is ideal for you. As they are fewer in number, it’s likely you’ll want to use the school’s transport service to get your child to and from school each day, so check where this stops and picks up in relation to your dwelling.

Locate a school with great OFSTED evaluations – OFSTED ratings work on a numbered rating from 1 to 4, with 1 being the best (Outstanding) and 4 being the worst (Needs improvement). A school in category 4 will occasionally be put in what is called Special Measures, meaning it’s external assistance from the local authority to try to improve, and the senior management team could be replaced if they are deemed to be ineffective. Whatever the scenario, every schools’ OFSTED score is published online and can be seen for free, so always go and have a look to learn more and use them to help you find a school.

Find a school your child is in disagreement with – quite often you’ll have a differing opinion than your child’s. This will almost certainly be the case when you come to discover a school for them. They may favour a college where their friends go, or which has the best sports team, or is nearest your home, whereas those are the schools with the worst OFSTED evaluations, or the worst transportation links, which you (rather more sensibly!)

When there are, help is at hand from many different sources to make sure you find a school that your child is happy at.

Is Cold Fusion Possible

Warning, Sun, Radioactive, Ultraviolet

In 1989 the chemistry professors Stanley Pons and Martin Fleishman reported they had achieved cold fusion in a palladium anode emerged in a solution of sodium deuteroxide in heavy water D2O. Due to a bad exactness of their report, only few other scientists were able to replicate their findings in the first location. The findings were subsequently dismissed as due to misunderstandings and bad scientific practice, and the subject of cold fusion has since been considered as a taboo area.

However, some scientists did manage to replicate the findings, and quietly an enormous amount of positive research findings based on experiments of a better quality have been printed. The phenomenon is again becoming accepted as a legitimate field of study by steadily scientists.

However, what is really going on isn’t well understood. Heat production, found radiation and detected fusion products suggest that some sort of nuclear reaction or fusion occurs, but the reactions don’t show the amount of radiation and the ratios of products that known hot fusion reactions do. Therefore other names of this phenomenon are often used, such as Low Energy Nuclear Reactions or (LENR) or Chemically Assisted Nuclear Reactions (CANR).

WHAT IS FUSION

The new nucleus is held together by the strong forces between the heavy particles, protons and neutrons. These forces are so powerful that they triumph over the repulsing electromagnetic forces between protons.

However, the powerful forces only work at a short distance. Therefore the nucleons (neutrons and protons) must be brought very close together. This is difficult because of the repulsing electromagnetic forces between the protons. In conventional fusion this is achieved by very high temperature and pressure in the fusing material.

The mass of a helium nucleus (consisting of two protons and two neutrons) and other light nuclei are less than the bulk of the identical amount of free protons, neutrons or deuterium nuclei. A deuterium nucleus consists of on proton and one neutron. Heavy water comprises deuterium rather than ordinary hydrogen and is therefore designed D2O. When fusion occurs, this mass difference cannot be lost. It’s converted into kinetic energy and gamma radiation. Therefore fusion of protons, neutrons or kernels of the very lightest elements into heavier elements is a really potent energy source.

One hasn’t been able to generate a controlled fusion by high temperature and pressure that yields more energy than the input energy yet. The only practical way you’ve managed to exploit the energy from warm mix is that the hydrogen bomb.

THE PROCESS BEHIND COLD FUSION

There isn’t any fully developed model for cold fusion yet. The theory behind the phenomenon is nevertheless very simple: All particles behave according to quantum mechanical laws. These laws state that the coordinates and energy state of a particle at one point in time determine the probability of finding a particle a place with some given coordinates at another point of time, but the exact place cannot be predicted. Actually, a particle can be found anywhere at that other time point, put all places don’t have the exact same probability. Some places are very likely, and others are very improbable. As a result of this, even a particle that’s not in any internet motion nevertheless will shift place randomly to some extend, usually very little, but occasionally more.

By bringing particles and nuclei very near each other by using some force, this will happen: The quantum mechanical behaviour will as always make the particles shift their position more or less all the time, and sometimes they get near enough to let the strong nuclear forces to take actions and cause them to fuse.

According to standard comprehension of the conventional theory, this cannot happen in such a degree to be detected. Still it does. Either the standard theory is not complete, or one has not learned to use the concept in a ideal fashion. The mathematical apparatus of the theory is so complex, it is impossible to predict what can happen and what can’t happen with a short glance at the equations.

Cold fusion differs in several aspects from warm fusion. It is difficult to produce warm fusion of other things than 1 deuterium and one tritium kernel. By cold fusion, two deuterium kernels easily fuse to helium, and even fusion involving hydrogen kernels (free protons) have been reported.

Output of neutrons (n), tritium (T), protons (p) and gamma radiation was reported by cold fusion, but not in the amount predicted by standard comprehension.

THE ORIGINAL PONS-FLEISCHMAN SYSTEM

The first experiment exerted by Pons and Fleischmann consisted of those components: A palladium cathode, a nickel anode and a solution of sodium deuteride NaOD (20 percent ) in heavy water D2O.

When electricity was applied to the electrolytic system, deuterium atoms were produced at the cathode, and oxygen at the anode. The deuterium atoms went to the palladium crystal lattice in great extend prior to mixing to D2.

Excess heat was then produced in the electrolytic cell, aside from the electrolytic heat. Helium, tritium and neutrons were produced, but the latter two goods not in the quantities that would have been produced in a hot fusion. Thus the fusion reactions in the system are different form those in hot fusion, and likely more complicated.

Only few scientists were able to replicate the results in the first place, because of awful documentation from the originators. However, a number of them succeeded, and slowly the conditions for a decent fusion have been established. The ideal fusion occurs when the palladium is somewhat over-saturated, that is when there are nearly as many atoms of deuterium as those of palladium from the crystal.

The saturation is controlled by the voltage applied, and by using palladium structures composed of very thin layers or very little grains. The electrolysis in itself is only a way to put deuterium to the palladium crystal matrix.

As seen, cold fusion processes can be initiated by packing many deuterium kernels into inter-atomic rooms in a crystal lattice. A critical density for starting a fusion process appears to be the same density as in liquid pure deuterium. Since there is no fusion process in liquid deuterium, the crystal lattice likely packs the deuterium kernels together in tight sub-microscopic groups with much greater density than the average density in the lattice as a whole, and thus allowing quantum mechanical tunnelling between the kernels from the groups.

There are other electrolytic solutions than that utilized by Fleischman and Pons that can be utilised in combination with palladium electrodes to acquire cold fusion. By electrolysing a solution of KCL/LiCL/Lid using a palladium anode, signs pointing at cold fusion have been reported, but many attempts of repeating the results have failed.

Any force that is able to push enough D+ ions to the right types of metal crystal lattice, can be used to deliver cold fusion. For example can signs of fusion be produced by bombarding the right kind of metallic lattice with hastened D- ions.

By an electric discharge between palladium electrodes at a deuterium gas, signs of fusion have been seen. By such a release, plasma composed of D+ ions and electrons will be formed between the electrodes. The D+ ions will be attracted to the surface of the negative electrode, and a high density of Dwill happen at this surface. Since also these D-ions will have a high thermic energy; many of them will be thrown very near each other. Quantum-mechanical tunnelling can then do the rest of the approaching procedure, so that fusion can take place.

Also large pressure can be used to push enough deuterium into a metallic lattice to give fusion. For instance, by having finely divided palladium sausage at a pressurized deuterium gas, signs of fusion have been generated, and replicated by other scientists.

Also by reactions where nickel metal and H2 unite, indications of fusion have been discovered. Even though H2 and not D2 was used, the reaction has still been reported to happen. This points to a very different reaction mechanism than that of warm fusion. Some scientists speculate that hydrogen atoms can exist in quantum states where the electron and proton are so near each other which the atom responds like a neutron.

MICROSCOPIC WARM FUSION IN OSCILLATING SONOLUMINATING GAS BUBBLES

By bombarding gas bubbles in a liquid by ultrasonic waves, the bubbles can be brought into an extreme oscillation of expansions and collapses synchronized with the sound frequency.

Such oscillating bobbles can send out light by certain frequencies of expansions and collapses, and from the ideal compositions of the gas. By each collapse, the place temperature in the bobble can reach up to 10 mill degrees, though the average temperature in the complete blending is near room temperature.

When deuterium is present in the oscillating bobbles, fusion was observed. This fusion is strictly not cold fusion, but looks like hot fusion, and also the procedure sends out neutrons, gamma-rays and tritium atoms as predicted by standard understanding.

The process hasn’t been reported to produce more energy that that put in, but is supported by independent investigators.

COMMERCIAL POTENTIAL

Cold fusion in crystal lattices has been proven to generate more energy than that put in. Experimental 1 MW or more experimental reactors was set up and demonstrated.

Commercial reactors are by now being developed, but no one has yet been able to demonstrate a reactor with stabile enough operation to be sold in the marketplace. Commercial household heaters appear to be the first type of reactors these companies attempt to develop. The hope of these companies is that these will make a means for greater reactors and uses in the market.

By now it is not easy to see how successful cold fusion will be in the energy marketplace. Cold fusion may make a revolution that provides the world cheap clean energy in enormous amounts, but nobody knows yet.

Knut Holt is an internet marketer and consultant focusing on technical and scientific products. To find: Remote controle helicopters, airplanes, cars and boats. Airsoft guns of all models. Chemistry sets. Electronic sets, transmitters and electronic components. Professional microscopes and binoculars. Night vision instruments: —